Saltar al contenido

Ethereum Upgrade: London Hard Fork Implements Vitality to Smart Contracts

julio 7, 2023
Ethereum Upgrade: London Hard Fork Implements Vitality to Smart Contracts

The Ethereum blockchain has recently undergone a major upgrade known as the London Hard Fork, which introduces significant improvements to the platform’s smart contract functionality. This upgrade aims to enhance the overall performance and security of the Ethereum network, making it even more robust and efficient for developers and users alike.

The Purpose of the London Hard Fork

The London Hard Fork represents a key milestone in the ongoing development of Ethereum. One of its primary objectives is to implement the Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) 1559, which introduces a new fee structure and improves the user experience with more predictable transaction costs. With EIP-1559, Ethereum transitions from a first-price auction model to a base fee model, reducing fee volatility and making transactions more efficient.

Another notable improvement brought by the London Hard Fork is the introduction of EIP-3554, which delays the «difficulty bomb» and adjusts the Ethereum mining difficulty. This measure is crucial in maintaining a stable block time and ensuring a smooth transition to Ethereum 2.0, the upcoming upgrade that will shift Ethereum from a proof-of-work (PoW) to a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus mechanism.

Enhancing Smart Contract Capabilities

Smart contracts are an integral part of the Ethereum ecosystem, enabling decentralized applications (dApps) and decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols to function. The London Hard Fork introduces EIP-3198, which enhances smart contract capabilities by introducing a new opcode called «BASEFEE.» This opcode allows developers to access the current base fee of a transaction within a smart contract, enabling more advanced fee calculations and contract interactions.

Additionally, EIP-3529, another improvement included in the London Hard Fork, addresses the issue of storage refunds. Previously, when data was deleted from the Ethereum blockchain, users did not receive gas refunds for the freed-up storage. With EIP-3529, storage refunds are introduced, ensuring a more cost-effective use of smart contracts and reducing the overall cost of operations on the Ethereum network.

The Impact on Developers and Users

The London Hard Fork brings several benefits to developers and users of the Ethereum network. By implementing EIP-1559, transaction fees become more predictable, making it easier for developers to estimate costs and optimize their applications accordingly. Users also benefit from a more streamlined fee structure, reducing the likelihood of exorbitant gas fees during periods of high network congestion.

With the enhanced capabilities provided by EIP-3198 and EIP-3529, developers have more flexibility in designing and deploying complex smart contracts. The introduction of storage refunds enables cost savings and encourages more efficient contract management practices. Overall, these improvements contribute to a better user experience, lower costs, and increased scalability for the Ethereum ecosystem.


The London Hard Fork represents a significant upgrade for the Ethereum network, introducing vital improvements to smart contract functionality. Through the implementation of EIP-1559, EIP-3198, and EIP-3529, the Ethereum blockchain becomes more efficient, predictable, and cost-effective. Developers and users alike stand to benefit from enhanced capabilities, streamlined fee structures, and improved overall performance. With the London Hard Fork, Ethereum solidifies its position as a leading blockchain platform, poised for further innovation and growth in the decentralized finance space.